Engineering is a broad term covering a wide range of applications and industries. It combines science & technology and mathematics to give solutions to real-world problems. Therefore, to troubleshoot problems and bring advancements in various spheres, different types of engineering courses are offered for each area. Earlier, the major branches of engineering included mechanical, chemical, civil and electrical, with sub-branches of each discipline. However, today, the offered engineering degrees have dramatically increased in number due to all the progress that has taken place in recent times.
he education system of the country has also evolved with the emergence of several job opportunities in the realm of engineering. Ranging from computer science to agricultural, engineering programmes in almost all domains are provided by a number of universities that are offering specialised education and helping students in building a better career. You can choose to pursue any one of them based on your area of interest.
In this article, the most popular eleven engineering courses in India are listed that are job and industry oriented. Know the details of each one of them including their significance, scope, career options and job prospects.
1. Computer Science Engineering
Our lives are being touched by computing on daily basis. From the phones we use to the cars we drive, we are all interacting with the computer technology in everything we do. Whether you want to create a computer application or design software for the healthcare sector, you need to study computer science engineering and make a career in this field. A career in computer science will never become obsolete as we all are surrounded by the technology 24X7.
Why there is a demand for computer science engineers?
We are living in this digital age, and thus there is a great need for computer scientists for managing a wide array of tasks. Computer programmes have gained access to each and every aspect of our lives. All the work of theorising, designing, developing and applying the software and hardware for the programmes that we use every day is performed by computer scientists. Thus, there is a growing need for computer science engineers.
All the industries use computers, and thus computer science engineers have the option of working in any one of them. Problems prevailing in healthcare, data, science engineering, etc. can be solved by computers. It is up to the engineers specialising in computer science to figure out what kind of software should be designed to apply the solution.
Computer science engineers get lucrative salary packages. Due to their great demand, the salary packages with which their expert knowledge is rewarded are very high. Even the recent graduates in professional roles are remunerated quite well on an average. So, one can expect to earn a lot at a later stage after gaining some experience.
2. Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the working mechanisms of heavy tools and machinery. This professional programme comprises the study of principles of engineering, physics and material science for designing, analysing, manufacturing and maintaining mechanical systems. The programme covers technical areas such as the distribution of electricity through generators, transformers, transmission lines, lighting and wiring in buildings. A student pursuing this field of engineering studies and experiences the designing
of electric motors, automobiles, aircraft and other heavy vehicles. It demands know-how of software used in technical work such as computer-aided design and mathematical modeling. Renewable energy, automobiles, quality control,
industrial automation, Mechanobiology, etc. are some of the emerging domains in this field.
Why there is a demand for mechanical engineers?
There is a great need for mechanical engineers across India and abroad. Mechanical Engineering comprises the installation and operation of engines, machines, robotics, heating & cooling systems and manufacturing processes, design and manufacture. The engineers of this field are responsible for designing and developing machines ranging from bicycles to supersonic fighter jets that require analytical skills along with an ability to work in a team. Love for machines and familiarity with working with tools is a must. This field of engineering is driven by the laws of Physics and thus, having good knowledge of Mathematics and Physics is a basic requirement.
Scope & Job Profiles
An engineer specialising in this field
is employed in Oil & Petroleum Plant, Electronics Industry, Aerospace, Shipping Industry, Thermal Power Plants, Pharmaceutical Industry, etc. He/she can work in the aerospace, chemical, computer, communication, paper, power generation, automotive and manufacturing industry. Mechanical engineers can also get employed for working in maintenance and service profiles across diverse industries. Moreover, they can choose to teach in universities and colleges as well.
Graduates of mechanical engineering can earn between Rs. 3 to 4.5 lakh per annum in their first job. At present, there are a lot of roles for entry-level engineers in infrastructure management, technical support and services.
Some of the job profiles are as follows:
• Analysis and Testing
• Project management
• Designing and Production
• Research and development
• Installation and Maintenance
• Assessment and operation of plant/unit
• Equipment modification to improve quality
3. Civil Engineering
If you are interested in construction, have a sense of proportion and aesthetics, and are able to envision structures over different landscapes, then civil engineering is the right branch for you. All the historic and wonderful structures and buildings of the world are a result of civil engineering. Dealing with planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating, civil engineers work for improving the existing infrastructures as well. The studies of civil engineering also comprise teaching the growth of better infrastructural facilities for sustaining an eco-friendly environment. The course is offered at both undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) levels.
Why there is a demand for civil engineers?
Among all the engineering branches, civil engineering is considered as the single largest. Moreover, it is the second oldest discipline after military engineering. Civil engineering comprises a variety of aspects including planning, designing, construction, maintenance and modification of physical structures along with the naturally built environment. It deals with geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, forensic, hydrology, and more.
Using scientific principles, civil engineers solves a wide array of societal problems including residential, commercial, and industrial and public works projects at all levels of construction. Also known as construction engineering, the construction of various structures like sewers, bridges, highways, canals, tunnels, dams, residential buildings, industrial plants, railway lines, airports, etc. also come under this domain.
It is expected that India’s construction sector will grow at seven to eight per cent each year over the next ten years. Apart from the advancing domestic demands, the industry has an increased need in the international market as well.
According to a recent study by ‘National Skill Development Corporation’, India requires more than half a million civil engineers by 2020 if it has to meet its target of connecting all its six lakh villages and provide shelter to around 40 million households. Thus, there is a growing need for potential civil engineers for bridging the gap. It won’t be wrong to state that civil engineering is a promising career option since industrial development is unparalleled.
Various job roles offered to skilled professionals are as follows:
• Research, planning, designing, management of structure
• Construction, installation, and modification of structure
• Execution/implementation, operation of the plan
• Rectifying issues using scientific principles/fundamentals
• Monitoring developments and assessing options
• Synchronizing work with other engineers
4. Electrical Engineering
This domain is one of the newer branches of engineering that dates back to the late nineteenth century. This discipline deals with the technology of electricity. Electrical engineers take care of a wide range of components, systems, devices, tiny microchips and huge power station generators. The electrical engineering domain has advanced a lot since its early beginnings, and has branched out into a number of specialised categories comprising power generation and transmission systems, motors, batteries and control systems. Electronics, also coming under electrical engineering, has itself branched into different categories, like remote sensing, signal processing, digital circuits, telecommunications, instrumentation, audio, video, optoelectronics and radio frequency (RF) systems.
Why electrical engineers are in demand?
A technology revolution is required in India. For this, there is a need for a huge number of electrical engineers for tapping the untapped spaces domestically and overseas. They perform the task of designing, developing, testing and supervising the manufacturing of various types of electrical equipment, like communications systems, power generation equipment, electric motors, radar and navigation systems, and more. Behind every real-world and practical device that produces, conducts or uses electricity, an electrical engineer is responsible. They have critical skills such as a deep understanding of electrical and electronic theory, mathematics and materials. This in-depth knowledge helps them in designing circuits that perform specialised functions and meet requirements for safety, reliability and energy efficiency.
An electrical engineer is engaged in designing, developing and maintaining electrical components and control systems to the required specifications. The work is focused on sustainability, economy, quality, safety and reliability. The designed and manufactured electrical equipment is used across various sectors, such as:
• Manufacturing and construction
• Production and distribution of power
• Transportation and transport networks
• Building industry and services, including lighting, heating and ventilation
5. Chemical Engineering
Chemical engineering is applied chemistry that is concerned with the designing, manufacturing and functioning of plants and machines performing chemical reactions for making useful products or solving practical problems. The physical sciences (chemistry and physics) and/or life sciences (biology, microbiology and biochemistry) are applied together with economics and mathematics for the conversion of raw materials/chemicals into more useful and valuable forms.
Why there is a demand for chemical engineers?
These specialized engineers are responsible for working in a wide range of industries and plants including petrochemical plants, synthetic fiber units, chemical industries or refineries, mineral-based industries, petroleum refining plants, etc. Along with these, they are required to use their expertise and skill-set in paint manufacturing, fertilizer industry, pharmaceutical companies, textiles sector, plastics or explosives units as well.
There are huge opportunities for a chemical engineer to gain extensive experience. Chemical engineers are employed across the following:
• Defence establishments
• Atomic power plants
• Research organizations
• Forensic investigation departments
• Ceramic industry
• Fertilizers and pesticides units
Duties of chemical engineers
Chemical engineers are typically engaged in doing the following:
• Estimating production costs for management
• Designing and planning the layout of equipment
• Analysing and solving problems occurring during manufacturing processes
• Establishing safety procedures for those working with dangerous chemicals
• Conducting tests and assessing the performance of procedures throughout the production
• Conducting research for the development of new and improved manufacturing processes
• Evaluating equipment and processes for ensuring compliance with safety and environmental regulations
• Developing procedures for separation of components of gases and liquids, or for the generation of electrical currents by applying controlled chemical processes
6. Aerospace Engineering
This branch of science is behind the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. Two major overlapping branches, aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering, come under this discipline. Crafts staying within the atmosphere of Earth are a part of aeronautical engineering, while those functioning outside the Earth’s atmosphere are dealt by astronautical engineering. Aerospace engineering deals with artifacts that fly such as airplanes, rockets, satellites and helicopters. It is also about control systems, material strength, flowing fluids, etc. This is the engineering behind how things can be designed and built and maintained reliably.
Why there is a demand for aerospace engineers?
These specialised engineers are required for designing, developing and testing aircraft, spacecraft or missiles, and supervising their manufacture. New technologies are developed by them for use in aviation, defence systems and space exploration along with vehicle movement and control, overall vehicle design, structures, propulsion systems, etc. they may also be expert in a specific type of aerospace product, like commercial aircraft, helicopters, military fighter jets, missiles, spacecraft and rockets. Aerospace engineers are also demanded for dealing with celestial mechanics, aerodynamics, thermodynamics, acoustics, propulsion, or guidance and control systems.
Engineers working with aircraft are known as aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with the spacecrafts are called astronautical engineers.
The major work of an aerospace engineer includes national defense-related projects or the designing of civilian aircraft. They are involved in research and development projects comprising improvement of safety, efficiency, and environmental soundness of aircraft. More work opportunities for them are created due to the increasing use of unmanned aerial vehicles.
Aerospace engineers are demanded in commercial and government establishments to perform the following:
• Directing and coordinating the design, manufacture, and testing of aerospace products
• Assessing proposals for projects to determine their technical and financial feasibility
• Ensuring safe operation of the projects
• Evaluating designs to determine whether the products meet engineering principles and environmental regulations
7. Automobile Engineering
Also known as automotive or vehicle engineering, automobile engineering has gained prominence ever since motor vehicles came to be. Essentially derived from mechanical engineering, this branch deals with designing and manufacturing of vehicles that are used as means of transportation by road. The designing, developing, manufacturing, producing, testing, repairing, controlling and managing of automobiles comes under this branch of engineering. Mechanical engineering combines different elements of electrical engineering, electronic engineering, software engineering, safety engineering and mechanical engineering. Its major areas of application include car design, functions involving car production, engine designing and fuel management.
Why automobile engineers are in demand?
Using their specialised skill-set, the automobile engineers are able to design, develop, manufacture and test vehicles right from the conceptual stage till the production phase. They deal with a number of specialisations including aerodynamics, supply chain management, thermodynamics and electronics and control systems, engine systems, fluid mechanics, etc.
Automotive engineers are engaged within a wide range of roles in the manufacturing of motorcycles, vans, cars, along with different kind of commercial vehicles, their designing and after-sales care. They should have in-depth knowledge of the mechanism of the vehicle chassis, electrical systems, workshop technology, internal combustion engine, motor transport affairs, and research and design.
Automobile engineers are employed by following:
• Vehicle manufacturers
• Tyre manufacturers
• Specialist vehicle design companies
• Research/test laboratories
• Motorsports teams
• Oil/fuel companies
Some of the career prospects in the field of automobile engineering are:
• Safety Engineering
• Emissions Research
• Operations Research
• Performance Engineer
• Vehicle Dynamics Controller
• Automobile Engineering Technicians
• NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) Engineers
8. Textile Engineering
We all are involved with the expertise of a textile engineer on a daily basis through products like garments you wear, curtains, bed sheets, fabrics, towels, carpeting, draperies, and a lot more. Textiles have specialised application also such as getting used as the lining of space shuttle cargo holds. Also known as textile technology, textile engineering is the study of engineering principles and scientific methodologies that are applied for the production and processing of all types of textile fabrics, yarns and textile fibers. The study of physical and chemical principles used in the analysis of polymers comes under this domain of engineering.
Why textile engineers are in demand?
These engineers are demanded for their expert skills in research, creativity and innovation. Textile industry growing at a rapid rate, and textile engineers are demanded for bringing advancements in the field of fashion, garments and fibre manufacturing. Textile is a basic necessity, and its demand and supply will never diminish. The scope of this engineering has been growing and thus, there is a huge demand for textile engineers in India and abroad.
Textile engineers work in an industry that is engaged in designing and controlling fiber and textile processes. These engineers are employed in different sectors including manufacturing facilities, design plants and laboratories. They work around all types of materials, machines, and energy conservation and waste control. Various career opportunities in this field include process engineering, technical services managing, research and development, corporate management, medical textiles engineering, and quality control supervising.
Top textile companies and plants recruit textile engineers. They can also start their own venture if they want. Following designations are given to the students after they get a degree in textile engineering:
• Process engineer
• Operations trainee
• Technical salesperson
• Medical textiles engineer
• Quality control supervisor
• Process improvement engineer
9. Marine Engineering
The functions, maintenance and repair of all engineering and mechanical equipment on board a ship come under marine engineering. This domain of engineering deals with the science and natural architecture pertaining to ships and comprises the research done regarding oceans or any inland waters connected to seas. Marine engineers take care of the ship’s technical management, involving the selection of gas and steam turbines, and diesel engines for designing electrical, fluid, mechanical, and control system throughout a vessel. Anthropology, engineering, archaeology and sociology are incorporated in this specialised branch.
Why marine engineers are in demand?
Only marine engineers are able to understand, maintain and handle the modern vessels that are equipped with updated technology and devices. They are highly disciplined and responsible, and are in charge of a ship and its cargo. Overall cruising of the ship, its intricate machinery and supporting it crossing the water boundaries are the responsibilities of marine engineers. Their work may take place in containers and/or oil and gas tankers and cargo.
Marine engineers are recruited in a wide variety of sectors including oil companies, offshore power plants, cruises, etc. They can also find jobs in government verticals or the Indian Navy. An additional aspect of this profession is that they get to see the world through sailing.
Some of the career opportunities and job prospects include the following:
• Harbor Master
• Naval Architect
• Third Engineer
• Chief Engineer
• Ocean Engineer
• Fourth Engineer
• Marine Engineer
• Second Engineer
• Marine Technician
• Junior (Fifth) Engineer
• Marine Engineering Officers
• Navy Weapon Engineering Officer
10. Biotechnology Engineering
The field of applied biology and chemical engineering principles involving the use of living things in technology, medicine, engineering, and other beneficial applications is known as biotechnology engineering. Genetic engineering along with cell and tissue culture technologies also come under this branch of engineering. It is a collection of combined technologies that are applied to living cells for producing a specific product or improving its quality. This may include cultivation of plants, domestication of animals, and advancement via artificial selection, hybridization and breeding. Apart from biology, this discipline of science comprises other subjects like math, physics, chemistry, engineering, etc.
Why biotechnology engineers are in demand?
These specialised industries like chemical, bio-products, textiles, pharmaceuticals, medicine, nutrition, animal sciences, food, and environmental conservation recruit biotechnology engineers. Branches such as molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, and embryology are integrated into this domain of engineering. It is also associated with practical specialties like chemical engineering, information technology and robotics. Using their skills, the engineers create products by making use of biological systems such as organisms or their derivatives.
There is a huge scope of engineers, biologists, and other professionals of this field in India. They find jobs in a wide variety of areas including bioinformatics, agricultural biotechnology, bio-fertilizers, national bio-resource development, plant biology and marine biotechnology.
Below mentioned are some of the fields where a biotechnologist can explore job options:
• Food Processing
• Waste Management
• Environment Control
• Bio-processing Industries
• Public-funded Laboratories
• Drug and Pharmaceutical Research